Seminars this semester
Jan 21  Thu  Professor Valery M Nakariakov (Centre for Fusion, Space & Astrophysics, University of Warwick, United Kingdom)  SP2RC seminar  
10:00  Zoom link: https://zoom.us/j/95338171418  UKSOSS: Magnetohydrodynamic Seismology of the Solar Coronal Plasma with Kink Oscillations  
Abstract: Standing transverse oscillations of the plasma loops of the solar corona have been intensively studied for the last 20 years as a tool for the diagnostics of the coronal magnetic field. Those oscillations are confidently interpreted as standing fast magnetoacoustic kink modes of the plasma nonuniformities. Statistical analysis demonstrates that, in the majority of cases, the oscillations are excited by a mechanical displacement of the loop from an equilibrium by a low coronal eruption. Standing kink oscillations are observed to operate in two regimes: rapidly decaying large amplitude oscillations and undamped small amplitude oscillations. In both these regimes, different loops oscillate with different periods that scale with the oscillating loop length. The oscillation amplitude does not show dependence on the loop length or the oscillation period. In the decayless regime the damping should be compensated by energy supply which allows the loop to perform almost monochromatic oscillations with almost constant amplitude and phase. We developed a lowdimensional model explaining the undamped kink oscillations as a selfoscillatory process caused by the effect of negative friction, which is analogous to producing a tune by moving a bow across a violin string. The period of selfoscillations is determined by the frequency of the kink mode. The ubiquity of decayless kink oscillations makes them an excellent tool for MHD seismology, in particular, for probing free magnetic energy in preflaring active regions. 



Jan 27  Wed  Theo Torres Vicente (Nottingham)  Cosmology, Relativity and Gravitation  
15:00  Blackboard Collaborate  Electromagnetic selfforce on a charged particle on Kerr spacetime  
Abstract: In this talk, we consider the electromagnetic radiationreaction/selfforce process for a charged particle orbiting a rotating black hole. We will present and complement the existing results for the scalar and gravitational cases, to give a full picture of integer spins in the Kerr spacetime. We restrict ourselves to the case of circular orbits and we will compute the dissipative and conservative components of the electromagnetic selfforce numerically, by solving the inhomogeneous Teukolsky equations using the BHperturbation toolkit. The results will be compared to the scalar and gravitational cases found in the literature. 



Jan 28  Thu  (University of St Andrews, Solar and Magnetospheric Theory Group (UK))  SP2RC/ESPOS  
00:00  


Jan 28  Thu  Ben Snow (University of Exeter)  European Solar Physics Online Seminars (ESPOS)  
10:00  Zoom  Collisional ionisation, recombination, and ionisation potential in twofluid shocks  
Abstract: Shocks are a universal feature of warm plasma environments, such as the lower solar atmosphere and molecular clouds, which consist of both ionised and neutral species. Including partial ionisation leads to the existence of a finite width for shocks, where the ionised and neutral species decouple and recouple. As such, drift velocities exist within the shock that lead to frictional heating between the two species, in addition to adiabatic temperature changes across the shock. The local temperature enhancements within the shock alter the recombination and ionisation rates and hence change the composition of the plasma. We study the role of collisional ionisation and recombination in slowmode partially ionised shocks. In particular, we incorporate the ionisation potential energy loss and analyse the consequences of having a nonconservative energy equation. A semianalytical approach is used to determine the possible equilibrium shock jumps for a twofluid model with ionisation, recombination, ionisation potential, and arbitrary heating. Twofluid numerical simulations are performed using the (PIP) code. Results are compared to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model and the semianalytic solution. Accounting for ionisation, recombination, and ionisation potential significantly alters the behaviour of shocks in both substructure and postshock regions. In particular, for a given temperature, equilibrium can only exist for specific densities due to the radiative losses needing to be balanced by the heating function. A consequence of the ionisation potential is that a compressional shock will lead to a reduction in temperature in the postshock region, rather than the increase seen for MHD. The numerical simulations pair well with the derived analytic model for shock velocities. 



Feb 5  Fri  Dr. Sijie Yu (Center for SolarTerrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology)  SP2RC seminar  
13:00  Meet  Dynamic imaging spectroscopy at radio wavelength: new insight into energetic processes on the Sun  
Abstract: Thanks to recent advances in radio interferometric instrumentation, we've entered a new era of solar radio observationsbroadband dynamic imaging spectroscopy. In this talk, I will first introduce the history of solar radio observations based on either totalpower (integrated over the Sun) dynamic spectral measurements or imaging at a few discrete frequencies, then review some recent progress based on dynamic imaging spectroscopy over a wide frequency range that has placed us in a strong position to make revolutionary breakthroughs in understanding highenergy processes in the solar corona. Future perspectives will also be briefly discussed. 



Feb 10  Wed  Kevin Painter (Politecnico di Torino)  Applied Mathematics Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  Sticking together by going against the flow  
Abstract: The formation of swarms, schools, flocks, herds, aggregates etc is a classical example of selforganisation, with the benefits of forming a high density group ranging from efficient migration to higher fecundity. Often, groups form through a mechanism of chemical signalling between population members, an evolutionary ancient communication used by both microscopic and macroscopic species. Populations in fluid environments, though, must contend with complex and turbulent flows, potentially detrimental (e.g. splitting up groups) or beneficial (e.g. coalescing individuals) to the formation and maintenance of a group. As a counter to flow, rheotaxis describes a behaviour in which individuals orient their body axis with respect to the current and is observed in both unicellular and multicellular organisms . Here we investigate the extent to which rheotaxis and flow impact on chemicallymediated aggregation, revealing these can impact both negatively and positively according to the population state and flow conditions. A hypothesised densitydependent rheotaxis appears capable of optimising group formation and maintenance, exploiting the positive benefits from each of flow and rheotaxis. The results are discussed in the context of broadcast swarming phenomena in marine invertebrates. 



Feb 10  Wed  Luke Hart (Manchester)  Cosmology, Relativity and Gravitation  
15:00  Blackboard Collaborate  Reading between the lines: the hidden secrets of recombination  
Abstract: Cosmological recombination has been widely regarded a solid pillar of understanding the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and its anisotropies. For many years, the questions have been answered over the accuracy of these calculations due to exceptional codes as CosmoRec and HyRec as well as numerous publications on the intricate atomic processes. However, the era that dawned the formation of hydrogen and helium atoms has still given us brilliant insights into exotic physics as well as tribalistic disputes in the various pockets of modern cosmology. In this talk, we will briefly recap the physics of recombination before highlighting extensions to the standard model (parametric and nonparametric) that affect the surface of last scattering. Finally, we will look to the future probes that provide a direct, spectral handprint of the atomic transitions in hydrogen and helium: the recombination radiation. Here we will conclude with the feasibility of studying these lines with prospective missions such as SuperPIXIE, Voyage 2050 and what happens when the exotic physics modifications that we can test with the CMB anisotropies are propagated through to the SEDs from recombination. 



Feb 10  Wed  Paul Johnson  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  meet.google.com/mobkmpsrhe  Cones and affine toric varieties  


Feb 11  Thu  Vasco Henriques (Rosseland Centre for Solar Physics, Norway)  European Solar Physics Online Seminars (ESPOS)  
10:00  Zoom  The corrugated umbra model  
Abstract: The chromosphere of the umbra of sunspots is a remarkably dynamic layer featuring extremely fine subarcsec structure. Such structures appear dark against enveloping umbral flashes, but also bright before or after a flash, other features still are bright throughout. Only recently did we start understanding such fine features and semiempirical modelling is converging with simulations to provide insight, not only into such fine structure, but also into the umbral flash phenomenon itself. The observational evidence weighs overwhelmingly towards a strong corrugation of the umbra where the material in short dynamic fibrils overextends in a column of upflowing material while the adjacent areas flash. The delayed smallscale umbral brightenings at the bottom of such columns are an outofphase flash where the latestage downflowing column meets the upflowing underlayers. Recent inversions using NICOLE at both umbral flashes and smallscale brightenings result in a downflow over upflow stratification perfectly bridging the transition of downflowing fibrils to upflowing fibrils as well as redshifted absorption cores to blueshifted absorption cores in the broader surroundings. Locally, each inverted column is remarkably similar in velocity profile to those from forward modelling, provided the formation height of the observed Ca II 8542 line is slightly lower in the Sun than in the simulations. Conspicuously, resonant cavities naturally cause the upper downflowing layers to become visible in forward modelling and the toplayer downflows to last longer than otherwise. Open questions, and how these can be addressed by future observations, are briefly discussed. 



Feb 11  Thu  Vasco Henriques (Rosseland Centre for Solar Physics, Norway)  SP2RC/ESPOS  
11:00  Zoom link: https://zoom.us/j/165498165 (Meeting ID: 165 498 165)  The corrugated umbra model  
Abstract: The chromosphere of the umbra of sunspots is a remarkably dynamic layer featuring extremely fine subarcsec structure. Such structures appear dark against enveloping umbral flashes, but also bright before or after a flash, other features still are bright throughout. Only recently did we start understanding such fine features and semiempirical modelling is converging with simulations to provide insight, not only into such fine structure, but also into the umbral flash phenomenon itself. The observational evidence weighs overwhelmingly towards a strong corrugation of the umbra where the material in short dynamic fibrils overextends in a column of upflowing material while the adjacent areas flash. The delayed smallscale umbral brightenings at the bottom of such columns are an outofphase flash where the latestage downflowing column meets the upflowing underlayers. Recent inversions using NICOLE at both umbral flashes and smallscale brightenings result in a downflow over upflow stratification perfectly bridging the transition of downflowing fibrils to upflowing fibrils as well as redshifted absorption cores to blueshifted absorption cores in the broader surroundings. Locally, each inverted column is remarkably similar in velocity profile to those from forward modelling, provided the formation height of the observed Ca II 8542 line is slightly lower in the Sun than in the simulations. Conspicuously, resonant cavities naturally cause the upper downflowing layers to become visible in forward modelling and the toplayer downflows to last longer than otherwise. Open questions, and how these can be addressed by future observations, are briefly discussed. 



Feb 17  Wed  Kang Li (KU Leuven)  Pure Maths Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  Ghost projections and expanderish graphs  
Abstract: Roughly speaking, a ghost operator is often an infinite matrix such that its matrix entries vanish at the infinity. This notion was introduced by Guoliang Yu in the study of the socalled coarse BaumConnes conjecture. It is a very central topic in coarse geometry and operator algebras with applications to provide counterexamples to the coarse Baum–Connes conjecture, the existence of nonexact groups and the rigidity problem for Roetype algebras. In this talk, we will visualize a class of ghost projections in terms of expanderish graphs. 



Feb 17  Wed  Daniele Oriti (LMU Munich)  Cosmology, Relativity and Gravitation  
15:00  Blackboard Collaborate  Emergent relational cosmology from quantum gravity  
Abstract: We overview recent results on the extraction of an effective cosmological dynamics from fundamental quantum gravity formalisms in which spacetime is not fundamental, focusing on so called tensorial group field theories (strictly related to lattice quantum gravity and loop quantum gravity). This line of research is inspired by the idea of our universe as a quantum gravity condensate, and at the same time realizes it concretely. We emphasize how reaching the desired objective requires addressing several outstanding issues in quantum gravity: identifying quantum states in the fundamental theory with a good geometric interpretation, performing some form of coarse graining of the fundamental dynamics, defining diffeomorphism invariant observables to express the resulting coarse grained dynamics in physically transparent language. We also discuss what the theory says about the fate of the big bang singularity at the beginning of our universe. 



Feb 17  Wed  Evgeny Shinder  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  Properties of affine toric varieties and projective toric varieties  


Feb 18  Thu  Dr Huw Morgan (Aberystwyth University)  SP2RC seminar  
10:00  Zoom Link: https://zoom.us/j/95338171418  UKSOSS: The Characteristics of Coronal Streamers Over a Solar Cycle: Resolving the LineofSight with Coronal Rotational Tomography  
Abstract: Any remote measurement of the solar corona in white light (or other) wavelength is an integration of emission along an extended line of sight. Historically, most studies necessarily assumed an axisymmetric distribution to the density, thus derived properties contained an inherent and unquantified uncertainty. From the SOHO era onwards, spacebased coronagraphs (LASCO/SOHO, and COR/STEREO) make frequent, uninterrupted, and highquality observations of the corona which allow estimates of the true density distribution using coronal rotational tomography (CRT). A recent breakthrough in CRT is revealing a new view of the corona which is gained directly from observation. For the first time, we can view longterm trends in the coronal rotation rate, find meaningul links between coronal and interplanetary density structures, and use estimated densities at a range of heights to constrain outflow velocity and acceleration. The density distributions provide a ground truth for model extrapolations of the photospheric magnetic field, and new empirical boundary conditions for solar wind models. Tentative evidence of the Parker spiral onset can be seen close to the Sun. The next step in CRT methods is the inclusion of a timedependent density distribution: initial results show promising correlations with Parker Solar Probe measurements, and the discovery of large variations on daily timescales not associated with mass ejections. 



Feb 18  Thu  Mijie Shi (KU Leuven, Belgium)  Plasma Dynamics Group  
16:00  Meet  Coronal loop model heated by transverse waves against radiative losses  
Abstract: In the quest to solve the longstanding coronal heating problem, it has been suggested that coronal loops could be heated by waves. Despite the accumulating observational evidence of the possible importance of coronal waves, still very few 3D MHD simulations exist that show significant heating by MHD waves. In this seminar, I will present our recent 3D coronal loop model heated by transverse waves against radiative cooling. The coronal loop is driven at the footpoint by transverse oscillations and subsequently the induced KelvinHelmholtz instability deforms the loop crosssection to a fully turbulent state. Wave energy is transferred to smaller scales where it is dissipated, overcoming the internal energy losses by radiation. These results open up a new avenue to address the coronal heating problem. 



Feb 24  Wed  Reinder Meinsma  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  Normal toric varieties  


Feb 25  Thu  Suzana de Souza e Almeida Silva (Sheffield)  European Solar Physics Online Seminars (ESPOS)  
10:00  Zoom  Detection and dynamics of the vortex tubes in the solar atmosphere  
Abstract: We present the stateofart detection method of threedimensional vortices and apply it to realistic magnetoconvections simulations performed by the MURaM code. The detected vortices extend from the photosphere to the low chromosphere, presenting similar behaviour at all height levels. The vortices concentrate the magnetic field, and thereby the plasma dynamics inside the vortex is considerably influenced by the Lorentz force. Rotational motions also perturb the magnetic field lines, but they lead to only slightly bent flux tubes as the magnetic field tension is too high for the vortex flow to significantly twist the magnetic lines. We find that twisted magnetic flux tubes are created by shear motions in regions where plasmabeta>1, regardless of the existence of flow vortices. 



Feb 25  Thu  Suzana de Souza e Almeida Silva (University of Sheffield, Plasma Dynamics Group (UK))  SP2RC/ESPOS  
10:00  Zoom link: https://zoom.us/j/165498165 (Meeting ID: 165 498 165)  Detection and dynamics of the vortex tubes in the solar atmosphere  
Abstract: We present the stateofart detection method of threedimensional vortices and apply it to realistic magnetoconvections simulations performed by the MURaM code. The detected vortices extend from the photosphere to the low chromosphere, presenting similar behaviour at all height levels. The vortices concentrate the magnetic field, and thereby the plasma dynamics inside the vortex is considerably influenced by the Lorentz force. Rotational motions also perturb the magnetic field lines, but they lead to only slightly bent flux tubes as the magnetic field tension is too high for the vortex flow to significantly twist the magnetic lines. We find that twisted magnetic flux tubes are created by shear motions in regions where plasmabeta>1, regardless of the existence of flow vortices. 



Mar 3  Wed  Jasmin Matz (University of Copenhagen)  Pure Maths Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  Quantum ergodicity of compact quotients of SL(n,R)/SO(n) in the level aspect  
Abstract: Suppose M is a closed Riemannian manifold with an orthonormal basis B of $L^2(M)$ consisting of Laplace eigenfunctions. Berry's Random Wave Conjecture tells us that under suitable conditions on M, in the high energy limit (ie, large Laplace eigenvalue) elements of B should roughly behave like random waves of corresponding wave number. A classical result of Shnirelman and others that $M$ is quantum ergodic if the geodesic flow on the cotangent bundle of $M$ is ergodic, can then be viewed as a special case of this conjecture. We now want to look at a level aspect, namely, instead of taking a fixed manifold and high energy eigenfunctions, we take a sequence of BenjaminiSchramm convergent compact Riemannian manifolds together with Laplace eigenfunctions f whose eigenvalue varies in short intervals. This perspective has been recently studied in the context of graphs by Anantharaman and Le Masson, and for hyperbolic surfaces and manifolds by Abert, Bergeron, Le Masson, and Sahlsten. In my talk I want to discuss joint work with F. Brumley in which we study this question in higher rank, namely sequences of compact quotients of $SL(n,R)/SO(n)$ for $n>2$. 



Mar 3  Wed  Valerio Lucarini (Reading)  Applied Mathematics Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  Fingerprinting Heatwaves and Cold Spells and Assessing Their Response to Climate Change using Large Deviation Theory  
Abstract: Extreme events provide relevant insights on the dynamics of the climate system and their understanding is key to defining useful strategies for mitigating the impact of climate variability and climate change. Here we approach the study of persistent weather extremes using the lens of large deviation theory. We first consider a simplified yet Earthlike general circulation model of the atmosphere and numerically estimate large deviation rate functions of nearsurface temperature in the midlatitudes. We find that, after a renormalisation based on the integrated autocorrelation, the rate function one obtains at a given latitude by looking, locally in space, at long time averages agrees with what is obtained, instead, by looking, locally in time, at large spatial averages along the latitude. This is a result of scale symmetry in the spatialtemporal turbulence and of the fact that advection is primarily zonal. This agreement hints at the universality of large deviations of the temperature field. Furthermore, we discover that the obtained rate function is able to describe spatially extended and temporally persistent heat waves or cold spells, if we consider temporal averages of spatial averages over intermediate spatial scales. We then extend our analysis by looking at the output of a stateoftheart climate model and at observational data. We show how to const ruction in a mathematically rigorous way the climatology of persistent heatwaves and cold spells in some key target regions of the planet by constructing empirically the corresponding rate functions for the surface temperature, and we assess the impact of increasing CO2 concentration on such persistent anomalies. In particular, we can better understand the increasing hazard associated to heatwaves in a warmer climate. We show that two 2010 high impact events  summer Russian heatwave and winter Dzud in Mongolia  are associated with atmospheric patterns that are exceptional compared to the typical ones, but typical compared to the climatology of extreme events. Finally, we propose an approximate formula for describing large and persistent temperature fluctuations from easily accessible statistical properties. Refs: V. Galfi, V. Lucarini, Fingerprinting Heatwaves and Cold Spells and Assessing Their Response to Climate Change using Large Deviation Theory, PRL, in review (2020) V. Galfi, V. Lucarini, J. Wouters, A Large Deviation Theorybased Analysis of Heat Waves and Cold Spells in a Simplified Model of the General Circulation of the Atmosphere, J. Stat. Mech. 033404 doi: 10.1088/17425468/ab02e8 (2019) 



Mar 3  Wed  Elsa Teixeira (Sheffield)  Cosmology, Relativity and Gravitation  
15:00  Blackboard Collaborate  Cosmological Predictions of a Disformal Dark Sector  
Abstract: In this talk I will give an overview of interacting dark energy, with emphasis on disformal couplings and its cosmological implications. I will then focus on the general Dark DBrane setting, for which the interaction in the dark sector arises naturally through the induced metric on a moving brane. In particular, I will discuss the background and linear perturbation equations in this setting, together with a numerical analysis, with brief connection to observational constraints. Testing gravity in the dark sector will be an exciting topic in the upcoming decade, with nextgeneration cosmological data probing gravitational phenomena in finer detail. 



Mar 3  Wed  Karoline Van Gemst  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  Toric orbits and toric morphisms  


Mar 4  Thu  Erico L. Rempel (Aeronautics Institute of Technology  ITA, São José dos Campos, Brazil)  Plasma Dynamics Group  
16:00  Meet  Dynamical Systems Approach to Solar Physics: From Lyapunov Exponents to Lagrangian Coherent Structures  
Abstract: Dynamical systems, or chaos theory, has enjoyed huge success in the analysis of systems described by ordinary differential equations, such as nonlinear oscillators, chemical reactions, electronic devices, population dynamics, etc. Usually, in the dynamical systems approach, one is concerned with the identification of the basic building blocks of the system under investigation and how they interact with each other to produce the observable dynamics, as well as how they can be manipulated to produce a desired output, in the cases where control is pursued. Examples of those building blocks are unstable equilibrium and periodic solutions, nonattracting chaotic sets and their manifolds, which are special surfaces in the phase space that basically control the dynamics, guiding solutions in preferred directions. Despite its success in those areas, many still think that the theory has limited value when applied to fully developed turbulence, like observed in solar convection, due to the infinite dimension of the phase space. In this talk, we show that this difficulty can be overcome by adopting a Lagrangian reference frame, where the phase space for each fluid particle becomes threedimensional and the building blocks of the turbulence can be efficiently extracted by appropriate numerical tools. We reveal how finitetime Lyapunov exponents, a traditional measure of chaos, can be used to detect attracting and repelling timedependent manifolds that divide the fluid in regions with different behavior. These manifolds are shown to accurately mark the boundaries of granules in observational data from the photosfere. In addition, stagnation points and vortices detected as elliptical Lagrangian coherent structures complete the set of building blocks of the photospheric turbulence. Such structures are crucial for the trapping and transport of mass and energy in the solar plasma. 



Mar 10  Wed  Anssi Lahtinen (University of Copenhagen)  Pure Maths Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  An introduction to string topology  
Abstract: Founded by Chas and Sullivan's observation that the homology of the free loop space of an oriented manifold has the structure of a BatalinVilkovisky algebra, string topology studies the rich algebraic structure present on the homology of the free loop spaces of certain spaces such as manifolds and classifying spaces of compact Lie groups. In this talk, I will provide a gentle and subjective introduction to the subject, and also indicate how it connects with objects such as moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces, automorphism groups of free groups, and finite groups of Lie type. 



Mar 10  Wed  Aaron Held (Imperial College)  Cosmology, Relativity and Gravitation  
15:00  Blackboard Collaborate  Shadows and Binaries: Stationary and dynamical spacetimes beyond GR  
Abstract: The recent wealth of experimental data from the LIGO/Virgo as well as from the EHT collaboration is fully consistent with GR. However, the true nature of the observed compact objects must involve some new physics (quantum or classical) to ameliorate the singularities present in the interior of the respective GR description. In the spirit of local EFTs, the talk will be based on the main assumption that the new physics, whatever its origin, is tied to local curvature scales. Based on this locality principle, I construct a new class of everywhereregular, stationary spacetimes parameterized by a mass function in horizonpenetrating coordinates. This construction allows me to identify characteristic image features of the shadows of this class of regular black holes, in particular, in distinction to other models not following the locality principle. Moving on to dynamical spacetime evolution, still following the principles of local EFT, I will present first results on a fully nonlinear but wellposed numerical simulation of (quadratic) higherderivative gravity in the sphericallysymmetric sector. 



Mar 10  Wed  Yannik Schüler  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  Divisors  


Mar 11  Thu  Sergio J. González Manrique (Astronomical Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences (SK))  SP2RC/ESPOS  
11:00  Zoom link: https://zoom.us/j/165498165 (Meeting ID: 165 498 165)  The Dynamic and Magnetic Evolution of Arch Filament Systems  
Abstract: We study the dynamics of plasma along the legs of an arch filament system (AFS) observed with relatively highcadence spectropolarimetric data from the groundbased solar GREGOR telescope (Tenerife) using the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph in the He I 10830 Å range. The temporal evolution of the plasma of an AFS was followed using the chromospheric He I 10830 Å triplet and Si I 10827 Å. Measurements of vector magnetic fields in the solar chromosphere, especially in AFS, are extremely scarce, but very important. The magnetic field configuration reveals how AFSs are sustained in the chromosphere and hints at their formation, evolution, and disappearance. The magnetic field in the AFS follows looplike structures traced by chromospheric absorption lines. However, if magnetic field lines follow chromospheric threads as seen by filtergrams of H⍺, Ca II, or He I, is still not fully resolved. Previous studies have modeled AFS as multiple flux ropes with mixed signs of helicity consistently with the observed multiple filament bundles constituting AFS. Nevertheless, further spectropolarimetric observations are needed to address this issue. Many spectral lines are sensitive to the atmospheric parameters up to the upper chromosphere. Moreover, when combined with photospheric Zeeman sensitive spectral lines, one can infer the topology of the magnetic field from the bottom of the solar atmosphere to the chromosphere. In this talk, we are going to follow the nature of AFSs by reconstructing the magnetic field configuration of an EFR from the very beginning and follow its evolution and dynamics to support current AFS models. To that aim we used the spectropolarimetric data available at the upper photosphere (Si I) and the upper chromosphere. 



Mar 17  Wed  Ulrich Bunke (University of Regensburg)  Pure Maths Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  Motivic ideas in coarse homotopy theory  
Abstract: Coarse geometry studies the largescale properties of metric spaces, groups and other mathematical objects. Interesting invariants are constructed using coarse homology theories. In this exposition I will explain an axiomatic approach to coarse homology theories. A motivic statement is a statement of the form: For every coarse homology theory E assertion P(E) holds. For example, one can turn the coarse BaumConnes conjecture into a motivic statement. I will explain how motivic statements can be captured in terms of a universal coarse homology theory. The talk is based on joint work with Alexander Engel. 



Mar 17  Wed  Richard Daniel (Sheffield)  Cosmology, Relativity and Gravitation  
15:00  Blackboard Collaborate  Scaleinvariant, $R^2$ Inflation  
Abstract: In this talk, I will briefly recap slow roll inflation, before demonstrating that an $f(R^2)$ theory of inflation is able to dynamically generate a Planck mass from the vacuum expectation values of the scalar fields. We see that in such models if the self interaction is nonzero, a potentially large cosmological constant will emerge. To avoid this problem we introduce another scalar field, producing a Higgslike potential. This naturally drives the cosmological constant to zero soon after inflation. We will analyse both models in the Einstein frame, where we find a conserved Noether current simplifying the model to a N1 scalar field model. Finally, I will discuss the nontrivial features in the power spectrum, which produce testable parameters for future cosmological experiments. 



Mar 17  Wed  Cristina Manolache  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  Line bundles  


Mar 18  Thu  Dr Helen Mason (University of Cambridge)  SP2RC seminar  
10:00  Zoom link: https://zoom.us/j/95338171418 Meeting ID: 953 3817 1418  UKSOSS: Solar Diagnostic Spectroscopy  a Personal Perspective  
Abstract: Spectroscopic diagnostics have enabled us to determine the physical parameters of plasma for different solar features (active regions, jets, flares etc). Helen started her career studying the visible coronal lines from the 1952 eclipse observations. She then studied the UV and Xray spectrum of the Sun, working on many joint UK, NASA, ESA and Japanese solar space projects including Skylab, the SMM (Solar Maximum Mission), Yohkoh, SoHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), Hinode, SDO (Solar Dynamics Observatory) and IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph). She was a founder member of the CHIANTI team, an atomic database which has been extensively used for solar data analysis. In this talk, she will pick out a few key results as examples of the value of spectroscopic diagnostics (in the transition region and corona). She will also look towards the current opportunities for research in this field and the future prospects for spectrometers. For a recent review, see: Del Zanna and Mason, 2018, Solar UV and Xray spectral diagnostics’, Sol. Phys. Liv. Reviews. 



Mar 18  Thu  Kostas Tziotziou (National Observatory of Athens)  Plasma Dynamics Group  
16:00  Meet  Detection of smallscale chromospheric vortices and their intricate dynamics  
Abstract: Smallscale vortex motions are detected at various spatial and temporal scales in the solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the low corona. They often exhibit complex structure and dynamics and, as largely magnetic structures, can foster a variety of oscillations and wave modes. Despite, however, recent advancements in observational and theoretical studies, as well as in simulations and modelling, their proper detection, especially in chromospheric lines such as Hα and Ca II 8542 Å is still an open issue, and their structure and dynamics remain poorly understood. We present a novel automated method of chromospheric swirl detection based on their morphological characteristics that nicely complements previous LCTrelated approaches. We further discuss in detail the intricate dynamics of a persistent smallscale vortex flow with significant substructure, observed with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) at the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST), as well as oscillations and observational signatures of different types of waves within it and their propagation characteristics. Both discussed aspects, better detection leading to a more precise estimation of their occurrence rate and wave identification and their properties, are key elements for accurately assessing the role of vortex structures in the energy budget of the solar atmosphere. 



Mar 24  Wed  Magnus Goffeng (Lund University)  Pure Maths Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  A problem of magnitude  
Abstract: An invariant that has attracted quite some attention in the last decade is the magnitude of a compact metric space. Magnitude gives a way of encoding the size of a metric space, resembling both the Euler characteristic and the capacity. In this colloquium I will give a short introduction to magnitude and present some recent results for compact metric spaces of geometric origin (i.e. domains in Euclidean space or manifolds). One of the results states that the magnitude recovers geometric invariants such as volume and certain integrals of curvatures. Based on joint work with Heiko Gimperlein and Nikoletta Louca. 



Mar 24  Wed  George Moulantzikos  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  Toric surfaces  


Mar 25  Thu  Valeriia Liakh (INAFOAR National Institute for Astrophysics (IT))  SP2RC/ESPOS  
10:00  Largeamplitude oscillations in solar prominences derived from highresolution simulations  
Abstract: We report 2D MHD simulations of the largeamplitude oscillations (LAOs) in the solar prominences performed with MHD code Mancha. We aim to study the properties of LAOs using highresolution simulations in a simple 2D magnetic configuration that contains a dipped part. We loaded the dense prominence plasma in the dips region. In order to excite oscillations, we used a perturbation directed along the magnetic field. For the same numerical model, the four spatial resolutions were considered: 240, 120, 60, and 30 km. The longitudinal LAOs (LALOs) are strongly damped even in the highresolution simulation in the region of the weaker and more curved magnetic field (at the center and bottom of the prominence). At the prominence top, the oscillations have relatively longer damping times. Furthermore, during the first 100 minutes, the longitudinal velocity shows growing with respect to its initial amplitude. The amplification becomes even more significant in the experiments with highresolution. The damping and amplification mechanisms involved in our experiments can be important for explaining the observed amplification and attenuation of the LALOs. 



Apr 1  Thu  Iulia Chifu (University of Goettingen)  Plasma Dynamics Group  
16:00  Meet  3D solar coronal loop reconstructions with machine learning  
Abstract: The magnetic field plays an essential role in the initiation and evolution of different solar phenomena in the corona. The structure and evolution of the 3D coronal magnetic field are still not very well known. A way to ascertain the 3D structure of the coronal magnetic field is by performing magnetic field extrapolations from the photosphere to the corona. In previous work, it was shown that by prescribing the 3Dreconstructed loops’ geometry, the magnetic field extrapolation produces a solution with a better agreement between the modeled field and the reconstructed loops. This also improves the quality of the field extrapolation. Stereoscopy, which uses at least two view directions, is the traditional method for performing 3D coronal loop reconstruction. When only one vantage point of the coronal loops is available, other 3D reconstruction methods must be applied. Within this work, we present a method for the 3D loop reconstruction based on machine learning. Our purpose for developing this method is to use as many observed coronal loops in space and time for the modeling of the coronal magnetic field. Our results show that we can build machinelearning models that can retrieve 3D loops based only on their projection information. Ultimately, the neural network model will be able to use only 2D information of the coronal loops, identified, traced, and extracted from the extremeultraviolet images, for the calculation of their 3D geometry. 



Apr 2  Fri  Michael Griffiths (Research IT, University of Sheffield)  SP2RC seminar  
13:00  Meet  Computational MHD for solar physics with Graphical Processing Units  
Abstract: Parallel magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) algorithms are important for numerical modelling of highly inhomogeneous solar, astrophysical and geophysical plasmas. Parallelisation techniques have been exploited most successfully by the gaming/graphics industry with the adoption of graphical processing units (GPUs) possessing hundreds of processor cores. The opportunity has been recognised by the computational sciences and engineering communities who have recently harnessed successfully the numerical performance of GPUs. Here, we introduce the implementation of SMAUG, the Sheffield Magnetohydrodynamics Algorithm Using GPUs. SMAUG is a 13D MHD code capable of modelling magnetised and gravitationally stratified plasmas. We illustrate an application of SMAUG with a discussion of the results of a study of the atmospheric motions generated by the solar global resonant oscillations. Utilising a spatially structured driver across the base of the computational model, we embark on how the ensemble of performed simulations, that provide insight into the energy supplied by various wave modes, is redistributed in the atmosphere. The results shed light on the mechanisms leading to ubiquitous intensity oscillations in the stratified solar atmosphere and establish a link between signals at photospheric levels and the solar coronal response. In the final section of the talk we describe how to access the different resources which are available for running computational MHD codes with GPU’s. 



Apr 8  Thu  Mayukh Panja (Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, MPS (DE))  SP2RC/ESPOS  
10:00  Zoom link: https://zoom.us/j/165498165 (Meeting ID: 165 498 165)  Sunspot MHD simulations: subsurface structure and penumbral filament formation  
Abstract: Penumbral filaments do not form naturally in MHD simulations of sunspots. This is typically circumvented by modifying the top boundary: the field is made 23 times more horizontal than a potential field configuration. In this talk, I will explore the possibility that penumbral filament formation is governed by the subsurface structure of sunspots. We conducted a series of numerical experiments where we used flux tubes with different initial curvatures to study the effect of the fluting instability on the subsurface structure of spots using the MURaM code. We find that the curvature of a flux tube indeed determines the degree of fluting the flux tube will undergo—the more curved a flux tube is, the more fluted it becomes. In addition, sunspots with strong curvature have strong horizontal fields at the surface and therefore readily form penumbral filaments. The fluted sunspots eventually break up from below, with lightbridges appearing at the surface several hours after fluting commences. We also propose that intruding lightbridges can be used as tracers of the subsurface magnetic field. 



Apr 15  Thu  Prof Richard A Harrison (RAL Space)  SP2RC seminar  
10:00  UKSOSS Zoom Link: https://zoom.us/j/95338171418  UKSOSS: Taking stock of our understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections  
Abstract: This presentation will take stock of where we are with Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) research, taking a brief look at the history of CME observations and the early interpretations of the phenomenon, through to the present day where we have multispacecraft observations with coronagraphs and heliospheric imagers and a wide range of modelling techniques, many of which are now geared towards space weather impacts. This is a research area that has matured dramatically, since the launch of the SOHO spacecraft in particular, but especially with the increased interest in space weather and missions such as STEREO and Lagrange. It is a good time to take stock and in doing so to revisit some basic issues, including the flareCME relationship, stealth CMEs, coronal dimming and CMECME interactions, as well as lessons learnt from imaging and tracking CMEs in the corona and in the heliosphere. Perhaps it is also a useful time to pause and ask the questions, what else do we want to know about CMEs, and how are we going to satisfy that desire? 



Apr 15  Thu  Juie Shetye (New Mexico State University)  Plasma Dynamics Group  
16:00  Meet  Zooming into the solar chromosphere  
Abstract: The solar chromosphere serves as a bridging layer between the photosphere and the corona. This dynamic layer is filled with a plethora of features that vary in time and space. With the advent of highresolution groundbased observations we can discover new features. We use some of the World’s biggest solar telescopes to zoom into this layer and it reveals never seen before dynamics. Here I present detailed observations of two science topics that are guided by observations. I show a statistical study of spicules, which are longthin grasslike features observed on the sun. These events wigglejiggle and sway around their axes or along a common centre of mass to create wavelike motions on the Sun. These waves can travel with speeds on 100s of km per second to energise the solar chromosphere. The second example I show are swirlingwhirling events, that look like Tornadoes on the Earth. These churn the matter from the Lowe photosphere to the chromosphere. Studying the behaviour of such events is vital in understanding a decade long question in the solar physics, that tells us how the Sun’s atmosphere is heated. In addition, the current work presented already tests the limits of current telescopes in terms of the temporal and spatial resolution. The answer to exploring the depth of chromosphere lies in building nextgeneration solar physics observatories such as DKIST that have 3 times more spatial resolution than CRISP and much higher temporal resolution. 



Apr 16  Fri  Daria Y Shukhobodskaia (SP2RC (UoS))  SP2RC seminar  
13:00  Google meet link: https://meet.google.com/ciqzovurzm  The title will be Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in Cylindrical and Multislab Environments  
Abstract: The investigation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagation in different equilibrium configurations is important for the development of solar magnetoseismology (SMS). The applicable models of solar atmospheric waveguides are studied in the framework of Cartesian and cylindrical geometries. First, a magnetised plasma slab sandwiched between an arbitrary number of nonmagnetic/ magnetic layers are considered and an analytical approach is used for the derivation of its dispersion relation. The amplitudes of the eigenmodes depend on the equilibrium structuring and the model parameters; this motivates an application as a solar magnetoseismology tool. Specific cases of two and threelayered slabs are studied in detail and their potential applicability to magnetic bright points is discussed. Furthermore, the resonant damping of propagating kink waves is studied in a straight magnetic flux tube with the density varying along the tube taking into account the magnetic loop expansion. Also nonstationary magnetic tubes to model, for example, cooling coronal loops is considered. In particular, it was found that cooling enhances the wave amplitude and the loop expansion makes this effect more pronounced. After, we analyse $10$ driven kink oscillations in coronal loops to further investigate the ability of expansion and cooling to explain complex damping profiles. The used approach could allow to infer some important diagnostic information (such as, for example, the density ratio at the loop footpoints) from the oscillation profile alone, without detailed measurements of the loop and without complex numerical methods. The current study indicates that thermal evolution should be included in kinkmode oscillation models in the future to help us to better understand oscillations that are not purely Gaussian or exponential. Finally, fluting oscillations in a thin straight expanding magnetic flux tube in the presence of background flow are considered. The method of multiple scales is used for the derivation of the system of governing equations. We have found that the amplitude increases due to cooling and is higher for a higher expansion factor. Higher values of the wave number lead to localisation of the oscillation closer to the boundary. We show that the higher the value of the ratio of internal and external plasma densities, the higher the amplification of oscillation due to cooling. So, not only the wave number plays an important role in the evolution of the cooling system, but also the density ratio and the variation of tube expansion are relevant parameters in the cooling process of an oscillating flux tube. 



Apr 20  Tue  Petru Constantinescu (University College London)  Number Theory seminar  
13:00  Meet  


Apr 21  Wed  Cihan Okay (Bilkent University)  Pure Maths Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  Topology of quantum resources  
Abstract: A central question in quantum information theory is to determine physical resources required for quantum computational speedup. Such resources are characterized in terms of intrinsic features of quantum states and include various notions such as quantum contextuality, quasiprobability representations, and topological phases. Each of these notions correspond to a different perspective taken on the question of where the computational power is hidden. We take a topological approach based on the recently established connection between classifying spaces from algebraic topology and the study of quantum contextuality from quantum foundations in joint work with Robert Raussendorf. In this talk I will explain this connection and discuss possible ways of extending the role of topology to study other kinds of quantum resources. 



Apr 21  Wed  Peter Clarkson (Kent)  Applied Mathematics Colloquium  
14:00  


Apr 21  Wed  Bianca Dittrich (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo)  Cosmology, Relativity and Gravitation  
15:00  Blackboard Collaborate  Quantization of spacetime and its (effective) dynamics  
Abstract: General relativity taught us that spacetime geometry is dynamical and quantum theory posits that dynamical objects are quantum. In this talk I will sketch the notion of quantum geometry, which arises in loop quantum gravity. Somewhat surprisingly, this quantum geometry, although it arises from a quantization of a torsionfree theory, does include torsion degrees of freedom. I will then introduce an effective dynamics for such quantum geometries and sketch how to derive corrections that arise due to the inclusion of torsion degrees of freedom. 



Apr 21  Wed  Yannik Schüler  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  The Cox ring / quotient construction  


Apr 22  Thu  (Indian Institute of Technology, BHU (IN))  SP2RC/ESPOS  
00:00  


Apr 28  Wed  Tom Bridgeland (University of Sheffield)  Pure Maths Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  


Apr 28  Wed  Eleni Kontou (Amsterdam)  Cosmology, Relativity and Gravitation  
15:00  Blackboard Collaborate  TBA  


Apr 28  Wed  Ananyo Dan  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  Projective morphisms and resolution of singularities  


Apr 30  Fri  Indrani Roy (University College London)  SP2RC seminar  
13:00  Meet  Can Solar cyclic variability modulate winter Arctic climate?  
Abstract: This study investigates the role of the elevenyear solar cycle on the Arctic climate during 1979–2016. It reveals that during those years, when the winter solar sunspot number (SSN) falls below 1.35 standard deviations (or mean value), the Arctic warming extends from the lower troposphere to high up in the upper stratosphere and vice versa when SSN is above. The warming in the atmospheric column reflects an easterly zonal wind anomaly consistent with warm air and positive geopotential height anomalies for years with minimum SSN and vice versa for the maximum. Despite the inherent limitations of statistical techniques, three different methods – Compositing, Multiple Linear Regression and Correlation – all point to a similar modulating influence of the sun on winter Arctic climate via the pathway of Arctic Oscillation. Presenting schematics, it discusses the mechanisms of how solar cycle variability influences the Arctic climate involving the stratospheric route. Compositing also detects an opposite solar signature on Eurasian snowcover, which is cooling during Minimum years, while warming in maximum. It is hypothesized that the reduction of ice in the Arctic and a growth in Eurasia, in recent winters, may in part, be a result of the current weaker solar cycle. 



May 4  Tue  Andrea Conti (University of Luxembourg)  Number Theory seminar  
13:00  Meet  


May 5  Wed  Reinder Meinsma / Yirui Xiong  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  Canonical class and sheaf cohomology  


May 6  Thu  (University of the Balearic Islands, UIB (ES))  SP2RC/ESPOS  
00:00  


May 12  Wed  Ana Lecuona (University of Glasgow)  Pure Maths Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  Rational homology balls in low dimensional topology  
Abstract: In this talk we will mainly focus on rational homology balls: their history, interest and prominence in nowadays low dimensional topology. We will start with the basic definitions and we will spend some time trying to understand the importance of these balls and how they relate to seemingly disjoint problems. We will end by discussing some recent results which will hopefully give a picture of the current state of the art. No prior knowledge of the topic will be assumed. 



May 12  Wed  Isha Kotecha (Okinawa Institute for Science and Technology)  Cosmology, Relativity and Gravitation  
15:00  Blackboard Collaborate  TBA  


May 12  Wed  George Moulantzikos  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  Cohomology and intersection theory  


May 18  Tue  Srilakshmi Krishnamoorthy (I.I.S.E.R. Thiruvanthapuram)  Number Theory seminar  
13:00  Meet  


May 19  Wed  Birgit Richter (University of Hamburg)  Pure Maths Colloquium  
14:00  Meet  Detecting and describing ramification for structured ring spectra  
Abstract: This is a report on joint work with Eva Höning. For rings of integers in an extension of number fields there are classical methods for detecting ramification and for identifying ramification as being tame or wild. Noether's theorem characterizes tame ramification in terms of a normal basis and tame ramification can also be detected via the surjectivity of the norm map. We take the latter fact and use the Tate cohomology spectrum to detect wild ramification in the context of commutative ring spectra. I will discuss several examples in the context of topological Ktheory and modular forms. 



May 19  Wed  Alberto Cobos  Algebraic Geometry Learning Seminar: Toric varieties  
15:00  online in Google Meet (please email Evgeny for the link)  Toric Fano varieties, reflexive polytopes and mirror symmetry  


May 20  Thu  (University of Glasgow, School of Physics & Astronomy (UK))  SP2RC/ESPOS  
00:00  


Jun 3  Thu  (Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA (ES))  SP2RC/ESPOS  
00:00  


Jun 9  Wed  Noemi Frusciante (Lisbon)  Cosmology, Relativity and Gravitation  
15:00  Blackboard Collaborate  TBA  

